Doc, My Dog Has a Rash

itchy dog

Last month, Nationwide Pet Insurance announced the top pet insurance claims for the 650,000 pets they insure. The top four are skin issues. Number one and four are both skin diseases. Allergic dermatitis and pyoderma (skin infection) result in a skin rash which is the topic of this blog post.

Atopic or Allergic Dermatitis
Allergies are common in dogs and can be seasonal or non-seasonal. About this time of year, dogs with seasonal allergies start scratching and itching because pollen, mold or some beautiful spring plant is the source of their allergies. If your dog scratches year round, then the allergen might be dust, wool, feathers, or even the family cat! The itch-scratch cycle makes the skin red and inflamed. The itch-scratch cycle also sets off a cascade of events that can lead to infections in the hair follicle. Hot spots are a localized inflammation of the skin stemming from allergies. A severe hot spot can become infected with bacteria or yeast.

Bacterial Infection
A bacterial infection in the hair follicles is called pyoderma and was the number four most common insurance claim paid by Nationwide in 2017. If your dog has pyoderma, you will see a red, bumpy rash Pyoderma occurs most commonly as a result of allergies. Puppy pyoderma can be found on the tummy of puppies, likely because their immune system is not quite grown up yet. Flea bites, mange, clipper burn, and hair mats can also incite a skin infection. Licking and scratching a skin infection can make it much worse and is why veterinarians often recommend the dreaded cone in patients with skin infections.

Yeast Infection
Fungal or yeast skin infections are another allergy-induced skin problem. Certain breeds, like the West Highland white terrier, are predisposed to yeast skin infections, but any dog can get one. Face folds or skin folds in general hold moisture promoting the overgrowth of yeast which can be very itchy.

Ears Are Really Just Skin
The ear flaps are actually skin folded over on itself. Number two on the list of insurance claims is ear infections. Like skin infections, ear infections are tied to allergies. Follow your veterinarian’s instructions on managing the allergies and the ear infections will abate. Occasionally we see ear mites causing infections in dogs, but bacteria and yeast are much more common organisms causing an infection.

While clearly allergies are the most common cause of skin rashes, keep in mind systemic diseases such as Cushing’s disease and hypothyroidism may trigger a rash.

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