Patellar luxation is a common orthopedic condition in which the kneecap moves out of its normal position. It can affect one or both knees, and frequently occurs due to abnormalities of the bones or ligaments above and below the knee that affect how the knee is aligned in the joint. Occasionally, a luxating patella can occur due to trauma to the knee.
The kneecap may shift, or luxate, towards the inner thigh (medial) or towards the outer thigh (lateral). Cats and small breed dogs typically experience a medial luxation whereas larger breed dogs typically experience a lateral luxation.
As adorable as dogs may look in Halloween costumes, it’s important to prioritize safety and comfort over style and cuteness. If you’re planning to dress up your dog for Halloween, here are some tips to keep in mind:
Make sure the costume fits properly and doesn’t interfere with your dog’s sight, hearing, breathing, or movement.
Avoid costumes with pieces that can be tripped over or chewed off.
Never leave your pet unsupervised while dressed up.
Don’t remove your dog’s collar or ID tag.
If your dog has a thick coat, choose a lightweight costume to prevent overheating.
Do a dress rehearsal before the big day. If after a few attempts, your pet rejects the costume, don’t force it.
Dogs and cats have a third eyelid, called the nictitating membrane or nictitans. This shiny, pink membrane is tucked behind the lower eyelid and pops up when a pet is sedated or sick, has a mass behind or under the eye, or has a neurological condition. The nictitans contains a gland that is responsible for tear production. Cherry eye is a condition where the gland within the third eyelid protrudes from its normal position, resulting in a red, swollen mass near the inner eyelid that kind of looks like a little red cherry. It is believed to be caused by weak tissue fibers failing to hold the gland in place. One or both eyes can be affected, and improper treatment of this condition can result in dry eye.
Cancer is not one disease, but hundreds. Cancer can be grouped into three main categories:
Carcinomas – carcinomas are formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body. Tumors of the anal gland and mammary gland are common carcinomas in dogs and cats.
Hematopoetic tumors – blood cancer, or hematopoetic tumors, include leukemia and lymphoma.
Sarcomas – sarcomas are tumors formed by cells from bone and soft tissues, including muscle, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and fibrous tissue (such as tendons and ligaments). Examples of sarcomas in dogs include soft tissue sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and osteosarcoma.
Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in dogs, accounting for 85% of all canine skeletal tumors. While osteosarcoma is also the most common bone tumor in cats, primary bone tumors are relatively uncommon in cats to begin with. Osteosarcoma is also far less aggressive in cats than it is in dogs.
Osteosarcoma typically develops on the limbs (the forelimbs more often than the hindlimbs), but can also occur on the skull, rib cage, and spine. A rare form of osteosarcoma occurs outside the skeleton in the muscles, liver, or spleen. Osteosarcoma is a particularly aggressive tumor in dogs, with 75-90% of patients eventually having the tumor cells metastasize (spread) to other areas, particularly the lungs and other bones. In cats with osteosarcoma, around 40% will metastasize.
Kidney disease refers to the inability of the kidneys to work properly. Kidneys perform several key functions in the body, the most important of which is filtering waste products from the blood. Kidneys also maintain the balance of electrolyte levels in the body (such as sodium, potassium, and chloride), maintain blood pressure, and produce urine. Damage to the kidneys can result in the buildup of waste products to dangerous levels in the blood, also known as azotemia.
There are two main types of kidney disease – acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD develops slowly over time and can damage the kidneys to the point where they are unable to function properly. CKD was previously termed chronic renal failure (CRF). Unlike acute kidney injury, CKD does not disappear with treatment. CKD affects up to 10% of elderly dogs, while all cats are at risk of developing the disease. Unfortunately, it can take months or even years before a pet with CKD show signs of the disease. In addition, pets that have been diagnosed with AKI are at risk of developing permanent damage to their kidneys which can lead to CKD.