Ten Confusing Medical Terms Your Veterinarian Might Use

Confusing Medical TermsFor the past several months, I’ve been collating a list of complex words I’ve used when talking to pet families. These are words that provoke a quizzical look or a clarifying question from a family member during a conversation about pet health care. In this blog post, I do my best to define this confounding terms and hopefully help you demystify some common “vet-speak”!

  1. Anorexia has a bad connotation from its association with the human disorder, anorexia nervosa. When your veterinarian makes a note in a medical record that says “anorexia for 4 days,” the notation simply indicates that the pet is not eating. It does not mean that your pet has been diagnosed with an eating disorder.
  2. Dehiscence is the term used to describe a surgical incision that has fallen apart. While this sounds serious, most incisions are multi-layered, and it’s often only the outer layer of skin that comes undone. The most common cause of dehiscence is the pet owner’s reluctance to use an Elizabethan collar, or cone, to protect the incision.
  3. Fasting is common enough that most pet families will understand it in principle, but it’s important to know the specifics. Does fasting mean no food AND no water, or just no food? Be sure to ask this question if your veterinarian is not clear.
  4. General anesthesia indicates that the entire patient is anesthetized. If anesthesia is not general it’s local, meaning just one specific site. Veterinarians don’t use local anesthesia as much as physicians do. A common example of local anesthesia is the lidocaine injection you get at the dentist.
  5. Incontinence describes one of two conditions: inability to control urination or inability to control defecation. Veterinarians diagnose urinary incontinence more often than fecal incontinence. The most common cases of urinary incontinence involve older female dogs who leak urine when they sleep.
  6. Inflammation describes the body’s response to disease or injury. The cardinal signs of inflammation were defined by the 1st-century Roman encyclopaedist, Celsus, as calor, dolor, rubor and tumor (heat, pain, redness and swelling). This four-word summary is applicable to all inflammatory processes: a healing surgical incision, the area around an infected tooth or the intestine of a patient with inflammatory bowel disease.
  7. Lethargy, as defined by Dictionary.com, is: an abnormal lack of energy, especially as the result of a disease. This fits the veterinarian’s use of the word to a T. When your veterinarian asks questions about ball playing or Frisbee chasing, she is trying to determine if your dog is lethargic as part of the disease process being evaluated.
  8. Prophylaxis is an action taken to prevent a disease. For example, heartworm medication is a form of prophylaxis given to prevent heartworms and other parasites from infecting your pet. At AMC, a “prophy” is doctor speak for a dental cleaning to prevent tooth and gum disease.
  9. Responsive describes a pet’s level of consciousness and reaction to their environment. The acronym BAR is short for Bright, Alert, Responsive. A waggy, friendly dog is BAR. The lowest level of consciousness is comatose.
  10. Undetectable, one would assume, may indicate good news. If something is undetectable, it’s not there, right? Not necessarily. Your veterinarian might use this word to indicate something they’re worried about, but just can’t find yet. In incurable diseases like hemangiosarcoma, a veterinarian might say metastasis, or tumor spread, is undetectable when they can’t find any tumor using x-rays or ultrasounds. Because all dogs with hemangiosarcoma succumb to this dreadful disease, the metastases may simply be undetectable at the time of the test.

Of course, this is an incomplete list – your veterinarian may use many words you don’t understand during your visit. If this happens, remember there’s nothing wrong with asking your veterinarian for clarification, to explain something again or to provide an example.

How to Collect a Urine Sample from Your Dog or Cat

Collecting a urine sample from your pet is not easyThis week has been all about pee. AMC’s front desk has been busy receiving tubes, Tupperware and tinfoil full of it. It seems like all of my patients are having urinary tract issues at the same time and their owners are struggling to collect and deliver it all to AMC.

Urine collection from your pet is certainly a tricky process, and some of the pet owners were very creative in their solution to the challenge. In this blog post, I’ll share their solutions with you, since someday you might find yourself in their shoes – trying to keep your pet’s pee off of your shoes. Plus, your pet’s veterinarian will love you if you bring a urine sample to your pet’s annual visit, and don’t forget that fecal sample either!


The owner of Smokey, a Persian, used plastic wrap. He placed the plastic wrap over the clean litter in the litter box. Smokey didn’t seem to notice, and the plastic caught the urine in its folds. Smokey’s owner then used syringes to collect the urine off the plastic and delivered the urine to me.


Nathan is a Maltese who’s had his share of bladder problems – stones and a small tumor successfully removed by AMC surgeons. Like many small, city dogs, Nathan uses wee-wee pads for urinations. By flipping the pad upside down (blue plastic side up), so the urine would not be absorbed by the pad, the owner waited for Nathan to do his business, then folded the pad to create a spout and poured the urine into a clean container for transport.


Amelia, the Labrador, presented a different challenge in collecting urine. Many owners of female dogs slip one of those tinfoil pie pans under their dog when they urinate. For Amelia, the noise of the pan sliding under her was startling and the pan tended to fold as it was pushed. The shape was right, but the material was not. So Amelia’s owner switched to one of those environmentally unsound, but very sturdy, plastic disposable plates with an elevated rim. Once she caught the urine, she poured it off the plate into a clean container with a screw on lid.

One final thought

Collecting urine from your pet is not just busy work for the pet owner. It provides critical medical information. The results from the urine test helped me confirm Smokey did not have kidney disease, showed Nathan’s tumor had not recurred and proved that Amelia was not drinking too much water. And that is why this week was all about pee!

April is Heartworm Awareness Month

Click image to download

Veterinarian’s offices are humming with energy this time of year. Kitten season is starting up and many dogs will have their annual physical examination and blood tests. One test that is an annual essential is a heartworm test.

Heartworm basics

If left untreated, heartworms can be a serious and potentially fatal condition in dogs. However, the name heartworm is a misnomer. Adult heartworms live in the blood vessels of the lungs. Only in severe cases do the adult worms spill over into the heart and its associated blood vessels.

Dogs contract heartworms when they’re bitten by a mosquito carrying juvenile heartworms. As the worms mature in the dog, they migrate to the blood vessels of the lungs. As mature heartworms reproduce, their offspring, known as microfilaria, circulate throughout the body via the circulatory system. If a dog with microfilaria is bitten by a mosquito, the life cycle starts again.

Heartworm testing

The most common heartworm test uses a small blood sample from your dog. The test identifies a substance produced by the adult female heartworm. Since the test identifies only adult heartworms, there’s a lag time between the bite of the infected mosquito and when your dog will test positive for heartworm disease, approximately 5-6 months. So here in the Northeastern United States, we commonly test dogs for heartworms in the spring to identify any infections acquired during the prior summer. Heartworms have been diagnosed in all 50 states and the Companion Animal Parasite Council recommends annual testing for all dogs.

 Heartworm prevention

If your dog’s annual heartworm test is negative, your veterinarian will prescribe a monthly heartworm preventative. This class of medication kills the maturing heartworms before they reach the lungs. These drugs are effective at killing heartworms, but only if you give them on schedule. Check the website of your dog’s heartworm medication because many of these products have an app or an online reminder system to encourage compliance.

Heartworm infection

The veterinarians at the Animal Medical Center diagnosed two cases of heartworms last week. On the surface this seems odd, but both dogs were rescues transported to New York City from southern states. When you move animals, you move their infectious disease as well. Treatment of canine heartworm disease is tricky because the dying heartworms set off serious inflammation in the lungs and predispose dogs to blood clots. Dogs infected with many heartworms experience difficulty breathing, heart failure and obstruction of blood flow when blood vessels become clogged with 6-12 inch long worms. That’s why heartworm preventatives are so important: it helps everyone—dogs, owners, and veterinarians—avoid this complicated medical scenario.

Heartworm tips

If you travel with your dog to areas of the country where heartworms commonly occur, make sure your dog is taking monthly medications on schedule.  Many northern dog owners become lax about preventatives in the winter.

Cats and ferrets can get heartworm disease too, but it’s much less common than dogs. Check with your veterinarian about heartworm preventative in these species.

Is a clinical trial right for my pet?

Clinical trial assessmentWhile the title of this blog post suggests I will answer this question for you, I can’t answer for your pet. That task belongs to your family. I can outline some questions and their rationale to assist you in decision making.

Many veterinary specialty hospitals like the Animal Medical Center conduct clinical trials. Clinical trials help the veterinary community discover new knowledge about naturally occurring illnesses and, without them, the quality of medical care would stagnate. Clinical trials start with a research protocol. The protocol tests drugs, devices, procedures or other interventions such as a diet change. At AMC, the protocol is approved by a research board called an IACUC (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) who ensure the protocol has scientific merit and safeguards for patients. The clinical investigator collects information (blood samples, biopsies, examination information, x-ray images) from the study participants and analyzes the data to determine if the intervention under study is better, the same or not as good than the current standard of care.

Do the goals of the clinical trial meet your goals for treating your pet?

It’s important to keep your pet’s treatment goals in mind when considering a clinical trial for your pet. For example, one of my clients, whose dog has been diagnosed with a slowly growing malignant tumor, sent me a link to a clinical trial for a new drug to treat cancer. The clinical trial she found is a 28-day study evaluating how a new cancer drug is absorbed, metabolized and excreted from the body. While this trial will discover critical information about the new drug, a 28-day chemotherapy treatment is probably not enough to treat this dog’s cancer successfully. She decided against this trial for her dog. Her goal is long term control of her dog’s tumor and this clinical trial is not likely to achieve her goal.

Is a clinical trial free?

Maybe yes, maybe no. Clinical trials may be supported by a drug company, a research grant or the institution sponsoring the study. No matter who funds a clinical trial, there will be a budget and, as part of the informed consent process, you will receive information on the financial incentives included in the study. Be sure to ask what the investigator anticipates your out-of-pocket costs will be. Check with your pet insurance company to see if they will cover out-of-pocket costs of a clinical trial.

What if my pet has side effects during a clinical trial?

The clinical trial protocol will be designed to track and monitor any anticipated side effects. If side effects occur, the protocol will dictate the course of action. Your pet may be able to continue the trial if the side effects are minor or they could be removed from the trial if the effects are serious.

These days, most clinical trials feature a Quality of Life diary completed by the pet’s primary caretaker. This helps you to focus on how your pet is doing and provides the clinical investigator with a valuable resource in recognizing any negative side effects early in the trial.

Before you enter your pet into a clinical trial, ask what the expected side effects are, their frequency and how the study protocol manages side effects. Don’t forget to ask what your financial responsibility is if side effects occur.

How many visits will my pet need to complete the clinical trial protocol?

The answer to this question could be any number. Every study is different. When I’m involved in a clinical trial, I make a handout for the prospective participants outlining the study schedule. Ask if one is available for the trial you are considering.

Does the whole family have to agree to the pet participating in the clinical trial?

Fair question, tough answer. If all family members are going to be involved in taking the pet to clinical trial hospital visits, I say yes. If one family member is the “owner” and expects to give all medications, fill out all the forms and take the pet to all the hospital visits, then it might be their decision alone. If your family is having a difficult time deciding about a clinical trial for your pet, ask the clinical investigator if they collaborate with a social worker who might help in the decision-making process. Another professional to consult is your regular veterinarian. That veterinarian has probably known you and your pet for a long time, understands clinical trials and will be an excellent resource in the decision making process.

Why did the clinical investigator reject my pet from their trial?

All clinical trials have entry criteria. The criteria exist to ensure the data is collected from a group of patients who have a similar disease and with the safety of the participants in mind. Clinical investigators don’t want to make your sick pet sicker and neither do you, so they may feel the study is too risky for your pet.

Clinical trial resources for pet families

AMC clinical trials
American Veterinary Medical Association clinical trials database
Veterinary Cancer Society clinical trials database

Should I give CBD supplements to my pet?

CBD in PetsThere’s a huge interest in cannabis products for pets. Based on the queries from my patients, most of the interest is in CBD-containing supplements. While the internet and local pet stores may have well-stocked shelves of CBD chew treats, oils and creams, pet owners should exercise caution if they chose to administer such products to their favorite fur person.

Marijuana basics

The marijuana plant contains nearly 500 different organic compounds, but the two most important are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive cannabinoid, and cannabidiol (CBD). CBD is touted as safer because it does not have the euphoric effects of THC in humans, but CBD does affect the nervous system, and its mechanisms are largely a mystery to scientists. Additionally, CBD’s effect on cats and dogs remains poorly studied.

The Drug Enforcement Agency classifies marijuana or extracts from the plant as Schedule 1 controlled drugs. This classification prevents veterinarians from prescribing medical marijuana and also restricts our ability to research the drug’s effects in different diseases. Despite its Schedule 1 classification, CBD containing products can be purchased in stores and online.


Some products on pet store shelves contain “CBD from hemp.” Industrial hemp is legal; however, the Drug Enforcement Agency has issued a clarification that while they indeed recognize industrial hemp research and its products as legal, this protection does not extend to CBD products, which remain illegal, regardless of the source of the CBD. Recent legislation may ease the use of CBD from hemp, but until the federal regulations are written, prescribing CBD appears to be off limits to veterinarians like me.

What is the dose?

Despite the huge interest, there isn’t a correspondingly large body of scientifically collected information on the impact of CBD in pets. Most of the information veterinarians have available to them comes from emergency room studies of pets accidentally ingesting marijuana. This means I, and my colleagues, cannot be very helpful to you regarding dosing your pet with CBD products, because of a lack of information.

The lack of information regarding dosage is compounded by the fact that many CBD-containing products don’t contain the amount of active ingredient indicated on the label. The FDA has quantified CBD levels in some products and found many did not contain the advertised levels of CBD. Some “CBD” products contain very little CBD, while others contain more. For these reasons, the FDA cautions consumers regarding the purchase and use of CBD products as the effects may be unpredictable in their pets.

More information soon

Although information about optimal dosing of CBD and the diseases most amenable to CBD therapy are lacking, more information may be coming. According to a recent article in the American Animal Hospital Association’s Trends Magazine, approximately a dozen studies of CBD products are underway in dogs, cats, horses, monkeys and birds. When the results of those studies become available, pet owners and veterinarians will have much better information on which to base therapeutic decisions for their pets and patients. Until then, the many unanswered questions regarding CBD continues to limit its utility in pets.

Everyday Medicine: What is a spay?

“Everyday Medicine” is an intermittent series of blog posts highlighting tests, treatments, and procedures common in daily Animal Medical Center practice. Some past examples of this type of blog post include fecal analysis and vomiting or regurgitation.

Since February 26, 2019 is World Spay Day, today’s post focuses on spaying a healthy dog or cat as a method of contraception rather than as a treatment for a disease.

What is a spay?

Spaying is a surgical procedure that makes pregnancy impossible in a female dog or cat. Traditionally, both the ovaries and uterus are removed during a spay, but recent advances in veterinary surgery make removal of the ovaries without removal of the uterus a more common procedure.

What are the benefits of spaying my female dog or cat?

Most female pet dogs and cats are spayed to prevent unwanted litters of puppies and kittens. Removal of the ovaries also halts a female dog or cat’s reproductive cycle and prevents them from going into heat. When dogs are “in heat,” their vaginal discharge can be messy around the house. A female cat “in heat” yowls, cries, and is generally very disruptive to the humans in the household, especially those trying to sleep. “In heat” female dogs and cats attract undesirable male suitors. Spaying prevents all of these issues.

Additionally, dogs (and less commonly cats) can develop a life-threatening uterine infection called pyometra. Because spaying removes the ovaries, it removes the ovarian hormones and prevents pyometra from occurring. Finally, spaying your dog before the first heat cycle decreases their risk of breast cancer.

How is a spay performed?

There are two primary methods for performing a spay. The traditional one is through an incision in the middle of the abdomen; although spays can also be performed through an incision in the flank. However, minimally invasive methods of spaying, via laparoscopic surgery, have recently become more popular and more widely available. Laparoscopic surgery employs a tiny, high-resolution camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to perform surgery. The main difference between an abdominal surgery and laparoscopic surgery is the former removes both ovaries and uterus while the latter only the ovaries.

Finally, contraception is not just for girls and the surgical birth control procedure in males is often referred to as neutering.

Dental Don’ts in Celebration of National Pet Dental Month

Pet Dental Health Month: Slab FractureDuring a routine examination of your pet, your veterinarian will look in the mouth to assess his pearly whites. During National Pet Dental Month (every February), veterinarians and pet owners alike should remember to focus just a little bit more on healthy teeth. This concern for animal dental health is nothing new. In a recent article from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, archeologists from the Max Planck Institute have found evidence of equine dentistry in Mongolia as early as 1150 BCE.

To help you celebrate National Pet Dental Month using the most up to date veterinary oral hygiene recommendations, this blog post points out some common pet dental mistakes to avoid.

Don’t use human toothpaste

Fluoride-containing toothpaste has helped to revolutionize dental care in humans. But there is something drastically different about pets when it comes to toothbrushing: spitting. Dogs and cats don’t spit. This means toothpaste gets swallowed when you brush your pet’s teeth. Chronic ingestion of toothpaste can result in fluoride accumulating in your pet’s body, which can be toxic. Some toothpastes contain xylitol, an artificial sweeter. Dogs are exquisitely sensitive to xylitol and just a little bit can cause dangerously low blood sugar and liver damage. Way better to use the meat flavored toothpaste from your veterinarian’s office or get some nice dental wipes at your local pet emporium. Not sure how to brush your pet’s teeth? Watch our video featuring AMC board certified dentists.

Don’t chose anesthesia-free dental cleaning

The Animal Medical Center board certified dentists administer general anesthesia to all pets undergoing a dental cleaning. During this procedure they can clean both the cheek side and the tongue side of the teeth as well as beneath the gumline to prevent periodontal disease.

Anesthesia-free cleaning is currently in vogue in pet dental care. However, even the most well-trained pet will not tolerate dental instruments in their mouth and under the gums. Anesthesia-free dental cleanings just can’t provide the level of care your dog or cat deserves.

The American Veterinary Dental College has a policy statement on anesthesia-free dentistry in companion animals.

Avoid a nasty slab fracture of your dog’s tooth

The photo above shows a slab fracture (circled in red) of a canine premolar. This type of tooth injury is common and completely preventable. Dog’s given the opportunity to chew on bones, hooves, antlers, nylon dog chews and similar objects tend to crunch down on these hard, inflexible objects, cracking off half of their premolar. If the central pulp of the tooth is exposed, an infection can easily develop. AMC’s dentists either must repair or extract these fractured teeth.

By avoiding these dental don’ts, you will accomplish a major dental do – better oral health for your favorite fur person.

Making your cat live to be 100!

This photo is my patient, Jake, celebrating his 18th birthday which is approximately 86 in cat years.  But Jake is not my longest-lived patient, Sparky, an orange gentleman at 18 and a half takes that prize.  Weezer, a stripey spring chicken is the runner up at nearly 16 years.  What do these three elderly cats tell us about aging in our feline companions?

Many diseases, one cat

Research stemming from a Swedish pet insurance database indicates that cats like Jake represent the typical older feline patient.  In the Scandinavian cohort of cats, cancer, kidney disease and intestinal disease increase in frequency as cats age. Medically speaking, Jake has intestinal lymphoma, recurrent kidney infections, heart disease, pancreatitis and an occasional flare up of diabetes, all of which are currently under control.  Older cats, with a myriad of medical conditions, need a plethora of carefully titrated drugs to keep their problems well controlled.   From my veterinary viewpoint, these cases are incredibly challenging because one disease may need a medication like steroids while another disease like diabetes can flare up with steroid therapy.

Intestinal lymphoma

One diagnosis common to all three of these cats is cancer.  Jake, Sparky and Weezer all have lymphoma and for that matter, the same form of lymphoma, gastrointestinal small cell lymphoma.  This little fact should give you hope since all three cats have exceeded the reported average lifespan of cats which is 14 years, despite a diagnosis which is expected to send their owners into a blue funk.  Gastrointestinal small cell lymphoma has become the most common form of lymphoma diagnosed in cats and carries a good prognosis when treated early.  The take home message here is if your cat has a cancer diagnosis, despair should not be your first emotion.

Good news, cats are living longer

Sparky, Weezer and Jake reflect a new trend in cat lifespans.  Information from the Swedish pet insurance database I mentioned above suggests that cats are living longer.  For example, between 1998 and 2002, 58% of Birman cats lived on average 12.5 years and between 2003 and 2006 68% of Birman cats lived 12.5 years.  An increase in longevity was seen across the spectrum of cats including other purebreds and domestic cats.  The reason for this increase is currently a mystery.

How can you get your cat to live like Weezer, Sparky and Jake?

To have a geriatric cat, you first need your young cat to be healthy. Some very simple lifestyle modifications will help that happen.  Neutering has been shown to be associated with an increased lifespan.  Since trauma is a big killer of young cats, make your cats indoor ones.

Another killer of young cats is infectious disease.   Keeping your cat indoors will help protect your favorite fur person against contracting an infectious disease like FeLV and FIV, but vaccinations are another important component of protection against infectious disease.

Finally, feeding the right food will also help your cat grow old, but not too much, since overweight cats have a truncated lifespan.

Do you really need a cat sitter?


This week marks the beginning of the 2018 holiday season and with the holidays comes travel for celebrations with family and friends. Grandma may not have your cat on the holiday guest list, and other cats are just homebodies. With all the smart devices available to cat lovers, is a cat sitter really necessary when your cat is not traveling with you?

Remote Feeders
One of my very tech oriented millennial clients stopped by for new food and medication for his cat. We discussed the exact amount of the new food she should eat. After we settled on one quarter of a cup three times daily, he simply sat in the chair in my office and used his cat’s smart feeder app on his phone to dispense the exact amount of food from the feeder’s dry food reservoir. Get a water fountain at your local pet emporium and you don’t even have to worry about refilling the water bowl.

Robotic Litterboxes
For those that hate scooping poop, a self-cleaning litter box eliminates that chore. These litter boxes also allow you to leave your cat home unattended but maintain their litter box in pristine condition, at least until the waste drawer is full. Robotic litter boxes require a power source and are bigger than traditional boxes, so you will need the right space to take advantage of their convenience. Cats must weigh over a certain amount (>5 pounds) to trigger the automatic scoop function, so this might not be a good choice for petite cats.

Treat Cams
Smart technology using cameras and microphones will allow you to check in on your cats and talk with them via Bluetooth as long as you have a Wi-Fi connection. Some smart cams have additional functionality and can dispense treats, spritz aromatherapy, and stream video from the internet. With all this connectivity, will your cat even miss you?

Who’s in charge while you’re away?
While smart technology will allow you to provide food, water, a clean litter box, and some remote human interaction, some glitches could thwart your best laid plans for a sitter-free holiday. If your cat needs medication, smart technology may not be able to ensure your favorite feline isn’t spitting out the pills just out of camera range. Since all these devices depend on internet service and electricity, a winter storm that knocks out the power could leave your cat hungry and thirsty and in the dark. All your smart devices will make the cat owner’s life easier, however nothing can replace what your cat craves most, you. So give your cat a special holiday gift, her very own cat sitter!

Diabetes: Pets and People

Stone - Diabetes

November is American Diabetes Month. To highlight how veterinarians care for pets with diabetes, I thought I would tell the story of one of my patients, a fluffy, grey and white cat named Stone.

Stone is a youngster, just under two years of age. He came to see me because his owner had noticed weight loss and excessive drinking. Weight loss and excessive drinking are common clinical signs of diabetes, but Stone was much younger than the typical cat with diabetes. Hyperthyroidism can also cause weight loss and increased drinking, but typically occurs in older cats.

Another cause of weight loss and excessive drinking is chronic kidney disease, but again, typically in older cats. I wasn’t really sure what was wrong with Stone until the blood tests showed sugar in his urine and an elevated blood sugar.

Dogs and cats have different forms of diabetes. Dogs commonly have Type I diabetes, which is a total lack of insulin production by the pancreas. Cats have Type II diabetes which occurs most commonly in middle to older overweight cats. Unlike humans with Type II diabetes, cats require insulin injections where humans can often manage Type II diabetes with oral medications and diet. Strangely, with weight loss, insulin therapy, and a special diet, some diabetic cats will become normoglycemic again and no longer require insulin. This happened to my own cat and he stopped needing insulin for a year. Then became permanently diabetic and required insulin for the rest of his life. I think chronic inflammation of the pancreas (known as pancreatitis) was the likely cause of the diabetes.

Stone was in to see me just a few days ago. On twice daily insulin therapy, he has gained back some of the weight he lost and is eating his special diabetes diet with gusto. Blood tests indicate his blood sugar is well controlled and his owner notes it is getting harder for her to test his urine to measure the urine sugar level. I am suspicious he may be heading for a period of diabetic remission.

To help my readers understand the similarities between their own diabetes and that of their pets, I included a table below with a comparison of the common features of the disease.

Comparison of diabetes between people and their pets:

  Cat Dog Human
Occurrence 0.58% of cats 0.35% of dogs 9.4% of Americans
Type I diabetes No Yes Yes
Type II diabetes Yes No More than 90% of diabetes
Diabetic retinopathy No Rare Yes
Diabetic nephropathy No No Yes
Association with pancreatitis Yes Yes No
Oral treatments No No Yes
Insulin injections Yes Yes Yes
Spontaneous remission resolution Yes No No
Diabetic cataracts Rare Yes Yes
Linked to obesity Yes Yes Yes