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Liver Shunt or Portosystemic Shunt (PSS)

lethargic white dog
A liver shunt, also called a portosystemic shunt (PSS), is an abnormal blood vessel that bypasses or “shunts” blood around the liver instead of following a normal pathway through it. The liver is vital for building proteins or removing toxins from the blood, so when the liver is bypassed, toxins and waste continue to circulate throughout the already compromised body. This can stunt your pet’s growth, as well as lead to nervous system problems such as stumbling, seizures, or head pressing. There are two categories of shunts, extrahepatic (outside the liver) and intrahepatic (inside the liver). While most portosystemic shunts are congenital (present from birth), in some circumstances, portosystemic shunts may develop as a result of another problem with the liver (acquired shunt). In dogs with congenital shunts, signs often appear at a young age.

Tracheal Collapse in Dogs

Tracheal Collapse and Yorkshire terrier
Tracheal collapse is a respiratory disease that occurs when the dog’s trachea (windpipe) collapses, causing breathing problems and chronic coughing. The trachea is a flexible tube made of sturdy C-shaped cartilage rings. These rings keep the trachea open, allowing air to move to and from the lungs. When these rings weaken and start to flatten, the air squeezes through a smaller space. The result is a harsh, dry cough that sounds like a goose honking.